Ebola the (Outbreak) thread .



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Ebola the (Outbreak) thread .
08-04-2014, 06:04 AM (This post was last modified: 08-04-2014 06:20 AM by sysop.)
Post: #1
zgzero Ebola the (Outbreak) thread .


[Image: Ebola_Virion.jpg]


Ebola

Although deadly, natural Ebola is rapidly killed by sunlight. This makes it less than ideal for biological warfare. However the variant of Ebola called the Marburg virus was developed by the Soviets and it may be that this strain is more hardy. Too, work has been done by the Soviets in transferring parts of the Ebola virus into the composition of Smallpox and other diseases. If such experiments succeed, then such a strain might be suitable for terrorism.

The Ebola virus burst from obscurity late this century with spectacular outbreaks of severe, hemorrhagic fever. The first outbreak in Zaire resulted in 318 cases with a fatality rate of 90 percent; later it caused 150 deaths out of 250 cases in Sudan. Smaller outbreaks have continued in Africa with scientists unsure what the animal vector of the disease is - or even if there is one.

Epidemics appear to have resulted from person-to-person transmission as well as through laboratory infections, making this a potentially very contagious and deadly disease that is undoubtedly of great interest to those searching for new biological weapons. The incubation period for the needle-transmitted Ebola virus (spread by medical authorities who improperly sterilized equipment used for vaccinations) appears to be 5 to 7 days; person-to-person transmission takes from 6 to 12 days.

The virus spreads through the blood and then is replicated in many of the body's organs including the liver, lymphatic organs, kidneys, ovaries, and testes. As the disease progresses, it manifests itself in the form of bleeding, especially in the mucosa, abdomen, pericardium, and vagina. The capillary leakage leads to loss of blood volume, bleeding from various points in the body, shock, and acute respiratory disorder for those cases that will prove fatal. These patients eventually die of intractable shock. The illness is often accompanied by sustained high fevers with patients often becoming delirious and combative.

Health officials have argued that the Ebola virus is ill-suited to sustaining an epidemic since it kills so rapidly that victims don't have much chance to infect others. Also, the virus is not all that easy to pass along since it isn't airborne and can't be transmitted with a sneeze or cough. Although not everything is known about how the disease is spread, it appears to be similar to AIDS in that direct contact with a victim's blood or other body fluids appears to be necessary to contract the virus.

Modification of the virus through genetic engineering, or the creation of dispersal methods that could infect people through aerosol methods might also be practical. And the virus itself could conceivably mutate into an airborne disease. In short, given the lethality of Ebola, there is a great incentive to develop methods that would transform this into a viable weapon.

Past recommendations for isolation of the patient in a plastic isolator have given way to the more moderate recommendation of strict barrier isolation with body fluid precautions. This presents no excess risk to the hospital personnel and allows substantially better patient care.

Currently the main concern in the prevention and control of the disease is to interrupt any person-to-person contacts between those suffering from the disease and those who are free of it. This may be very difficult, especially during a large outbreak of the disease when hospitals are over-taxed and sick or dying patients are on the streets. The main consideration of those who are well is to avoid contact with blood or other body fluids from those who are ill; use of a protective mask and even clothing might also be necessary if the virus appears to be airborne.

Until the vector creatures that carry this disease have been determined, it would also be wise to avoid contact with all mammals since these are the most likely vectors of the disease (though it is always possible that the disease is carried by insects or other means).

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08-04-2014, 06:09 AM
Post: #2
RE: Ebola the (Outbreak) thread
History of Ebola

There are four types of Ebola: Ebola-Sudan, Ebola-Zaire, Ebola-Reston, and Ebola-Cote-d'Ivoire. A 30%-45% difference in nucleotides has been established between these strains.

The Ebola virus was first identified in a western equatorial province of Sudan. The outbreak began in the Nzara Cotton Manufacturing Factory and spread to the Nzara and Maridi areas of Sudan. Between June and November 1976 the Ebola virus infected 284 people in Sudan, with 53% mortality (117 deaths). That same year, an accident in a laboratory in England resulted in 1 non-fatal case of Ebola-Sudan. In 1979, another outbreak occurred in Nzara of Ebola-Sudan, and 65% of the 34 cases resulting in fatalities. Ebola-Sudan was again found in 2000-2001 in the Gulu, Masindi, and Mbarara districts of Uganda. Fatalities reached 53% of the 425 cases.

Closely following the outbreak in Sudan, Ebola surfaced in a nearby region of Zaire in 1976 after significant epidemics in Yambuku, northern Zaire, and Nzara, southern Sudan. This strain, known as Ebola-Zaire, is the most deadly of the four strains. The Yambuku case in 1976 proved deadly to 88% of the 318 cases (280 people). It began on September 1st with a 44-year-old male Mission school teacher who sought treatment for what he thought was a case of malaria at the Yambuku Mission Hospital. He received an injection of malaria medication, and the Ebola virus spread through medical equipment that was no sterilized. The hospital shut down on September 30th, and on October 18th, a World Health Organization Commission was formed. The last case died on November 5th. One case was discovered in Tandala, Zaire, in 1977. The next major outbreak of Ebola-Zaire was in Gabon in 1994 in the Mekouka and other gold-mining camps in the deep rain forests. The fatality rate was 59% (29 out of the 49 infected).

In 1995, a severe outbreak of Ebola-Zaire began in Kikwit, Zaire, beginning with a charcoal worker on January 6th. The disease spread by person-to-person contact and through ritual cleansings of the victims' bodies before burial. Of the 315 cases, there was a 77% case-fatality rate (244 dead). The outbreak officially ended on August 24th. In 1996, an outbreak in the Mayibout area of Gabon occurred following the ingestion of a dead chimpanzee found in the forest. The fatality rate was 68% of the 31 victims. A similar outbreak occurred in 1996 in the Booue area of Gabon that spread from a hunter who lived in a forest camp. 75% of the 60 cases resulted in fatalities. The virus was transported from Gabon to Johannesburg, South Africa, via a medical professional who had treated Ebola patients. While he recovered, a nurse who treated him died from the Ebola virus. In 2001-2002, an outbreak of the Ebola-Zaire strain occurred on the border area between Gabon and the Republic of the Congo. Of the 122 cases, there was a 79% fatality rate.

In 1989 and 1990, a filovirus, named Ebola-Reston, was isolated in monkeys being held in quarantine in a laboratory in Reston (Virginia), Alice (Texas) and Pennsylvania. Four humans developed antibodies without showing symptoms. In the Philippines, Ebola-Reston infections occurred in the quarantine area for monkeys intended for exportation, near Manila. A similar outbreak occurred in monkeys in 1996 in Texas and the Philippines. In 1992, Ebola-Reston virus was introduced into quarantine facilities in Sienna by monkeys imported from the same export facility in the Philippines that was involved in the episodes in the United States.

One human case of Ebola hemorrhagic fever and several cases in chimpanzees were confirmed in Côte d'Ivoire in 1994-95. A Swiss scientist became ill after conducting an autopsy on a wild chimpanzee in the Tai Forest, but the case did not result in a fatality.

Ebola as a Biological Weapons Agent

As a biological weapons agent, the Ebola virus is feared for its high case-fatality rate. Because of its rarity, the disease may not be diagnosed corrected at the onset of an outbreak. Reports suggested that the Ebola virus was researched and weaponized by the former Soviet Union's biological weapons program Biopreparat. Dr. Ken Alibek, former the First Deputy Director of Biopreparat, speculated that the Russians had aerosolized the Ebola virus for dissemination as a biological weapon. The Japanese terrorist group Aum Shinrikyo reportedly sent members to Zaire during an outbreak to harvest the virus.

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08-04-2014, 06:10 AM
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RE: Ebola the (Outbreak) thread

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08-04-2014, 06:10 AM
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RE: Ebola the (Outbreak) thread

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08-04-2014, 06:11 AM
Post: #5
RE: Ebola the (Outbreak) thread
Can you recover from ebola?


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08-04-2014, 06:13 AM
Post: #6
pin SCIENCE & SURVIVAL 1 / 6: Biological Warfare Agents & Terrorism

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08-04-2014, 06:15 AM
Post: #7
Open Borders Invite Threat Of Ebola Terrorism
War On Terror: As the Ebola disease spreads in Africa and detainees from that continent are apprehended, the question must be asked: What if terrorists already willing to die try to bring the disease across our porous southern border?

The Ebola outbreak that has killed at least 672 people in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone could land in the U.S., according to John O'Connor, a spokesman for the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

"It's true," he says, "that anyone with an illness is just one plane ride away from coming to the U.S." Indeed, a Liberian man infected with Ebola boarded a plane and brought the disease to Lagos, Nigeria, Africa's largest city, with 21 million people.

But what if in the future it's no accident? Nigeria is the home of Boko Haram. The Islamic terrorist group ISIL has long been recruiting terrorists in the West and is known to have members with Western, even American, passports.

Deliberately spreading the disease to the U.S. might not even require a plane ride, and it's possibile that terrorists already willing to strap bombs to their bodies might just as willingly get infected and pay a coyote to get them across our open southern border.

We remember the 9/11 Commission saying that terrorist attack was due in part to our lack of imagination. We couldn't imagine young Middle Eastern males learning to fly, but not land, passenger jets as part of a plan to fly them into skyscrapers.

The spreading of Ebola to the U.S. could be intentional, given the virus' relatively long incubation period of up to three weeks without symptoms, and no shortage of terrorists willing to die for their cause. It would be easy for an infected terrorist to slip in among the OTMs (Other Than Mexican) who have also been crossing our border.

"Central Americans are not the only ones being smuggled through Mexico to the United States," said a 2012 report by the U.N. Office on Drugs and Crime, a fact regularly reported by the U.S. Border Patrol.

"Irregular migrants from the Horn of Africa (Eritrea, Somalia and Ethiopia), as well as South Asia (Bangladesh, Nepal, India), China and other African and Asian states are being smuggled through Central America."

Albert Spratte, a spokesman for Local 3307 of the National Border Patrol Council, has repeatedly noted how the Rio Grande is being crossed by more than just Central Americans, including individuals from Africa. On one weekend, a group of Chinese females was apprehended.

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08-04-2014, 06:17 AM (This post was last modified: 08-04-2014 06:18 AM by sysop.)
Post: #8
RE: Ebola the (Outbreak) thread
Ebola virus disease



Ebola virus disease (EVD) or Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is the human disease caused by the Ebola virus. Symptoms typically start two days to three weeks after contracting the virus, with a fever, sore throat, muscle pains, and headaches. Typically nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea follow, along with decreased functioning of the liver and kidneys. At this point, some people begin to have problems with bleeding.[1]

The disease may be acquired upon contact with blood or bodily fluids of an infected animal (commonly monkeys or fruit bats).[1] It is not naturally transmitted through the air.[2] Fruit bats are believed to carry and spread the virus without being affected. Once human infection occurs, the disease may spread between people as well. Male survivors may be able to transmit the disease via semen for nearly two months. In order to make the diagnoses, typically other diseases with similar symptoms such as malaria, cholera and other viral hemorrhagic fevers are first excluded. Blood samples may then be tested for viral antibodies, viral RNA, or the virus itself to confirm the diagnosis.[1]

Prevention includes decreasing the spread of disease from infected monkeys and pigs to humans. This may be done by checking such animals for infection and killing and properly disposing of the bodies if the disease is discovered. Properly cooking meat and wearing protective clothing when handling meat may also be helpful, as is wearing protective clothing and washing hands when around a person with the disease. Samples of bodily fluids and tissues from people with the disease should be handled with special caution.[1]

There is no specific treatment for the disease; efforts to help persons who are infected include giving either oral rehydration therapy (slightly sweet and salty water to drink) or intravenous fluids.[1] The disease has high mortality rate: often killing between 50% and 90% of those infected with the virus.[1][3] EVD was first identified in Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The disease typically occurs in outbreaks in tropical regions of Sub-Saharan Africa.[1] Between 1976, when it was first identified, through 2013, fewer than 1,000 people per year have been infected.[1][4] The largest outbreak to date is the ongoing 2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak, which is affecting Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia.[5] As of July 2014 more than 1320 cases have been identified.[5] Efforts are ongoing to develop a vaccine; however, none yet exists.[1]

Link:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebola_virus_disease

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08-04-2014, 04:04 PM
Post: #9
RE: Ebola the (Outbreak) thread .
Killed by sunlight? How come it is so prevalent in Africa? Should use the herbal formula posted here for bubonic plague.
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08-05-2014, 02:38 AM
Post: #10
RE: Ebola the (Outbreak) thread .
(08-04-2014 04:04 PM)G-Zero Guest Wrote:  Killed by sunlight? How come it is so prevalent in Africa? Should use the herbal formula posted here for bubonic plague.

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